Ὁ μύθος περὶ τοῦ παράδεισου τῆς ἰσλαμοκρατούμενης Ἰσπανίας

Στὸ προηγούμενο ἄρθρο σύγκρινα τὶς ἀπόψεις τοῦ Χίτλερ καὶ τοῦ Ἔνγκελς γιὰ τὴ σημασία τῆς μάχης στὸ Πουατιέ. Παρακάτω, παραθέτω κάποια τμήματα ἀπὸ τὸ ἄρθρο τοῦ Darío Fernández-Morera, The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise, ποὺ καταδεικνύει ὡς ἐσφαλμένη τὴν διαδεδομένη εἰκόνα τῆς ἰσλαμοκρατούμενης Ἰσπανίας ὡς ἀνεκτικῆς καὶ πολυπολιτισμικῆς χώρας τὴν ὁποία κατέστρεψαν οἱ «βάρβαροι χριστιανοί».

Ὁ Fernández-Morera δείχνει ὅτι στὴν ἰσλαμοκρατούμενη ἰβηρικὴ χερσόνησο οἱ χριστιανοὶ καταπιέζονταν, ὅτι ὑφίσταντο βίαιους μαζικοὺς ἐκτοπισμοὺς καὶ δολοφονίες, ὅτι οἱ ἐκκλησίες τους γκρεμίζονταν καὶ ἀπαγορευόταν (ὅπως κατὰ τὴν Τουρκοκρατία σὲ μᾶς) ἡ ἀνέγερση νέων ἐκκλησιῶν· ὅτι οἱ Μουσουλμάνοι ἡγεμόνες ἔκαιγαν τὰ βιβλία τῶν «αἱρετικῶν Μουσουλμάνων»· ὅτι οἱ Ἑβραῖοι τῆς ἰσλαμοκρατούμενης ἰβηρικῆς μετανάστευαν λόγω τῆς καταπίεσης στὶς χριστιανικὲς περιοχὲς τῆς Ἰσπανίας κι ὅτι ἀνδαλουσιανοὶ μουσουλμάνοι λόγιοι τοὺς θεωροῦσαν «σέκτα τοῦ Σατανᾶ» κι ἀπαιτοῦσαν νὰ φορᾶνε εἰδικὸ σημάδι ὥστε νὰ ἀναγνωρίζεται ἡ κακία τους· ὅτι ἔγιναν σφαγὲς πολλῶν χιλιάδων Ἐβραίων στὴν ἰσλαμοκρατούμενη Ἰβηρική· ὅτι οἱ Μαῦροι τῆς Ἀφρικῆς θεωροῦνταν ἀπὸ τοὺς Μουσουλμάνους τῆς Ἀνδαλουσίας φύσει ληστές, βίαιοι καὶ ἠλίθιοι.

Ἀλλὰ ἂς παραθέσω τὰ αποσπάσματα.

The founder of the Emirate of Cordoba, Abd al-Rahman I…ordered the demolition of the ancient Catholic church of Cordoba to build the much admired mosque

During his reign and that of Abd al-Rahman II (822-852), the conqueror of Barcelona, Catholics suffered confiscations of property, enslavement, and increases in their exacted tribute, which helped finance the embellishment of Islamic Cordoba.

Under Abd al-Rahman II and Muhammad I (822-886), a number of Catholics were killed in Cordoba for preaching against Islam, while others were expelled from the city. Among these victims was Saint Eulogio, beheaded by the Islamic authorities. Muhammad I ordered that “newly constructed churches be destroyed as well as anything in the way of refinements that might adorn the old churches added since the Arab conquest.”

Al-Mansur (d. 1002),… burned heretical books…In 985 he burned down Barcelona, enslaving all those he did not kill.

in Granada in 1066—before the arrival of the almoravides—rioting Muslim mobs assassinated the rabbi and visir Joseph Ibn Naghrela and destroyed the entire Jewish community; thousands perished—more than those killed by mobs in the Rhineland at the beginning of the First Crusade

Commenting on these events, the memoirs of king Abd Allah of Granada (c. 1090) muster familiar anti-Jewish accusations against the visir: avarice, deception, treason, and favoritism toward coreligionists. Muslim suspicion of the Jewish community lasted until the end of Islamic rule

By 1170 the almohades had taken control of Andalusia and unleashed new horrors on Catholics, Jews, and other Muslims.

Contrary to popular opinion, Jews were not very numerous, either in Andalusia or in Catholic Spain, […] with the arrival of the jihadist almoravides and almohades Jews as well as Catholics fell victim to their religious zeal. Many Jews migrated to Catholic lands

This enlightened state presumably culminated under the exemplary reign of Abd-al-Rahman III, “The Servant of the Merciful” (912-961). The admiring words of the contemporary Muslim historian Ibn Hayyan, however, reveal a different picture: Abd-al-Rahman III, we are told, kept Islam safe from religious dissension, “saving us from the trouble of having to think for ourselves”; under him “the people were one, obedient, quiet, submissive, not self-sufficient, governed rather than governing”; he succeeded by applying religious inquisition efficiently, “persecuting factions by all means available…chastising the innovations of those who drifted away from the views of the community.”

In the eleventh century, again before the invasion of almoravides and almohades, the man of letters Ibn Hazm saw his books burned and was imprisoned several times.

A sample of its teachings can be found in the dhimma writings of jurist Ibn Abdun (Seville, c. 1100): “A Muslim must not act as a guide or stableman for an animal owned by a [non-Muslim]…. It is forbidden to sell a coat that once belonged to a leper, a Jew, or a Christian, unless the buyer is informed of its origin … No…Jew or Christian may be allowed to wear the dress of an aristocrat, nor of a jurist, nor of a wealthy….Those are Satan’s party”

A distinctive sign must be imposed upon them so they may be recognized and this will be for them a form of disgrace; the sound of bells must be prohibited in Muslim territories and reserved only for the lands of the infidels; it is forbidden to sell to Jews and Christians scientific books unless they treat of their particular law. They have translated scientific books and attributed them to their coreligionists and their bishops, whereas they are really the work of Muslims! It would be preferable not to let Jewish or Christian physicians heal Muslims.

A distinctive sign must be imposed upon them so they may be recognized and this will be for them a form of disgrace; the sound of bells must be prohibited in Muslim territories and reserved only for the lands of the infidels; it is forbidden to sell to Jews and Christians scientific books unless they treat of their particular law. They have translated scientific books and attributed them to their coreligionists and their bishops, whereas they are really the work of Muslims! It would be preferable not to let Jewish or Christian physicians heal Muslims.

ΜΑΥΡΟΙ

the enslavement of black Africans was an entrenched part of the culture of Andalusia. So was racial prejudice. In his Proverbs, al-Maydani (d. 1124) wrote, “the African black, when hungry, steals; and when sated, he fornicates.”

Traveling through Africa, Ibn Battuta (1207-1377?) claimed that blacks were stupid, ignorant, cowardly, and infantile. These attitudes could be found throughout the Islamic world.

In 1068, … the cadi of Muslim Toledo, the Arab Sa’id Ibn Ahmadi,… he accounted the inhabitants of the extreme North and South as barbarians, describing Europeans as white and mentally deficient because of undercooking by the sun, and Africans as black, stupid, and violent because of overcooking.

ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΣ

Ibn Abdun lists numerous rules for female behavior in everyday life: “boat trips of women with men on the Guadalquivir must be suppressed”; “one must forbid women to wash clothes on the fields, because the fields will turn into brothels. Women must not sit on the river shore in the summer, when men do”; “one must especially watch out for women, since error is most common among them.” Elsewhere he also condemns wine drinking, gambling,

Even the much praised poetry of El collar de la paloma displays attitudes that would be called misogynistic today.

ΜΟΥΣΙΚΗ

Malik ben Anas (713-795), founder of the Sunni malikite Islamic “way,” to which a majority of Andalusian Muslims belonged, considered music an enemy of piety. Hence Ibn Abdun: “musicians must be suppressed, and, if this cannot be done, at least they must be stopped from playing unless they get permission from the cadi.”

ΒΙΑΙΟΙ ΕΚΤΟΠΙΣΜΟΙ

Catholics even suffered mass deportations: at the beginning of the twelfth-century, Muslims expelled the Catholics (mozarabs) of Malaga and Granada en masse to Morocco.

In twelfth century Granada, Muslims destroyed the entire Catholic population.

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One Response to Ὁ μύθος περὶ τοῦ παράδεισου τῆς ἰσλαμοκρατούμενης Ἰσπανίας

  1. Παράθεμα: Ἱσπανικὸς Ἐμφύλιος: Ξεθαψίματα | Χρονογραφίες

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